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目前分類:Taiwan Trademark Law (11)

瀏覽方式: 標題列表 簡短摘要

商標「善意」先使用:明知或非明知? 實習律師李汝民 Using its trademark with Bona fide: knowingly or not knowingly? Intern Lawyer Ru-Min Lee

前言Preamble

商標法第30條第1項第3款規定:在他人商標註冊申請日前,善意使用相同或近似之商標於同一或類似之商品或服務者,不受他人商標權之效力所拘束。同款但書並規定,善意使用以原使用之商品或服務為限,商標權人並得要求其附加適當之區別標示。此即商標法所謂「善意先使用」之規定(商標法逐條釋義,頁95),其立法目的在於,商標權人於商標獲准註冊後雖享有排除他人使用其商標之權利,但為了避免過度保護商標專用權利反而造成市場自由競爭之阻礙、以及適當調和商標先註冊主義與先使用主義之衝突,故對於商標專用權利加諸一定之限制。

Trademark Act Article 30, Paragraph 1(3): by bona fide, prior to the filing date of the registered trademark, the proprietor of the registered trademark is entitled to request the party who use the trademark to add an appropriate and distinguishing indication when there is an identical or similar trademark on goods or services identical with or similar to those for which the registered trademark is protected for which the use is only on the original goods or services.

The purpose for such is for the proprietor of the registered to exclude others from using its registered trademark. Even though such third person knowingly used another person’s well-known registered trademark with bona fide (Trademark Act Interpretation, page 95). However in order to prevent overprotection on its trademark right which obstruct its free trade competition, it is important to have an appropriate reconciliation between the first register doctrine and the doctrine of first use of trademark. Therefore some of the restrictions need to be imposed on its trademark rights.

「善意」之解釋

What is ‘bona fide’?

然,所謂的「善意」,解釋上可能如同民法條文之「善意第三人」,係「不知情」之意。則「善意先使用」即須不知有他人商標,而使用相同或近似之商標於同一或類似之商品或服務,方可主張。

However the word ‘bona fide’, from its interpretation in civil law means ‘bona fides third party’, which has ‘not knowingly’ meaning. Where the trademark is identical with or similar to another person’s registered trademark in relation to goods or services, for which another person’s registered trademark is designated, does exists its likelihood of confusion on relevant consumers, would have grounds for revocation.

實務上有台灣台北地方法院93年度智字第70號判決可供參考。該判決指出,「商標法第30條第1項第3款之『善意』,係指『並非以不正當競爭為目的』,即使商標權人已使用商標,未申請註冊,但第三人明知該商標己使用,卻使用他人商標,在商標權人註冊商標後,第三人仍使用該商標,其不得主張係善意使用。」

In practice, the case of Taiwan Taipei District Court 93 years Zhi No. 70 can be used as reference. For its case, it indicates that the Trademark Act Article 30, Paragraph 1(3) ‘bona fide’ means ‘not for the purpose of unfair competition’. Despite that the proprietor of the registered has previously used its trademark, if such trademark is not registered and the third person still uses its trademark knowingly, such person is prohibited to claim prior use of such trademark after its trademark is being registered.

亦即,該判決認為第三人必須「非明知該商標已使用」方可主張善意先使用,可認為其對於商標法「善意」之解釋較為接近民法上之「善意」--即不知情。

The judicial reasoning behind this case is that the third person must ‘not knowingly use its trademark’ to claim for its bona fide prior use. You can treat the word ‘bona fide’ defined in Trademark Act similar to the ‘bona fide’ defined in Civil Law.

然亦有法院就善意之解釋採取更為寬泛之見解。台灣高等法院96年度上易字第597號判決指出,「按判斷是否符合商標法第30條第1項第1款之『善意』要件,考諸商標法為保障商標權及消費者利益,維護市場公平競爭,促進工商企業正常發展之立法目的,除視使用人是否知悉他人尚未申請註冊商標之存在以外,尚應視使用人於使用時是否意圖影射他人商標之信譽,而致影響公平競爭秩序為斷,以保護善意創用之使用人

There is wider interpretation of ‘bona fide’ by court, the case of Taiwan Taipei District Court 96 years Zhang Yi No. 597 indicates that in order “to determine whether such element satisfies the ‘bona fide’ defined in Trademark Act Article 30, Paragraph 1(1), you need to consider whether such Trademark Act would protect consumers’ best interest and to maintain trade market fairness and to promote industrial and commercial enterprises development. Apart from knowing whether such user knowingly used its unregistered trademark, it is important to know whether such user intent to take advantage of its trademark reputation in result of disturbing its trade market fair competition. The purpose for this is to protect the first trademark user with bona fide.

又現行商標法第30條第1項規定為:『凡以善意且合理使用之方法,...』,考其真意,核與美國法上之『fairly and in good faith』相當,是此『善意』並非民法上向來所解之『不知情』,亦不以無過失為要件。」

The Trademark Act Article 30, Paragraph 1 indicates: “reasonable with bona fide…”, is similar to the American Law “fairly and in good faith” but not similar to ‘not knowingly’ defined in Civil Law, which doesn’t constitute ‘negligent’ as one of the elements.

依照上述判決,則可以主張「善意」使用他人商標之情形即有下列兩者:

From the above cases, we can know that there are two scenarios to define ‘bona fide’:

(1)   不知悉他人尚未申請註冊商標之存在。

Not knowingly the existence of other unregistered trademarks.

(2)   雖知悉他人商標之存在,但使用人於使用時並無影射他人商標信譽之意圖。

Despite knowing the existence of other trademark, but such user does not have the intention to take advantage of its trademark reputation.

(1)之情形同於前述台灣台北地方法院93年度智字第70號判決之見解,但(2)之情形即係知情卻仍能主張善意先使用之例,可知上述高等法院之判決對於商標法「善意」先使用之解釋係較民法之「善意」先使用更為寬泛,可以說是更偏向於先使用主義之判決。

What’s described in (1) is similar to the case of Taiwan Taipei District Court 93 years Zhi No. 70, however what’s described in (2) above focuses on ‘knowingly’ but with bona fide prior use. There seems to have wider interpretation of ‘bona fide’ defined in Trademark Act than what’s defined in Civil Law which is more toward the bona fide prior use doctrine.

評析 Review

我國商標法第2條於92年修法後,已將原本法條文字「確具使用之意思」刪除,且修法理由亦明示本法採註冊保護原則,故我國商標法於92年修法後應係採先註冊主義無疑。

After the amended Trademark Act Article 2 in 2003, after amendment, deleted the word ‘indeed with the use of means’, such Act inherited the registered protection doctrine and therefore after its amendment in 2003, there is no doubt that Taiwan employs a first-to-register system for trademark protection.

先註冊主義的確可能衍生濫行申請而並無真正使用商標意思之問題,但此已有繼續三年未使用等商標廢止程序可供利用。故,商標法第30條第1項第3款之「善意」先使用實不應再採取過於擴張之解釋,以免因為本條之規定反而使本法傾向於先使用主義,而與第2條總則之規定產生衝突。

However the first-to-register system has its inherent problems to register trademarks even it is not really necessary. However there is a rule set out in its Trademark Act to cease its registration if such trademark has not been used for three years continuously. Therefore Trademark Act Article 30, Paragraph 1(3) ‘bona fide’ prior use should not have any wide interpretation to prevent any conflicts between the first-to register system defined in Paragraph 2.

此外,本國係採「民商合一」制度之國家,因此商標法之解釋亦應以民法相同之法概念為依歸,否則可能造成法體系之混亂與適用之衝突。

On the other hand, Taiwan inherent Civil and Commercial combination system, therefore Trademark Act’s interpretation should be the same as the Civil Law in Taiwan otherwise there may have conflict of laws between the two systems.

最後,美國商標制度本即係採「先使用主義」,於1998年後其商標制度雖有修正,亦僅修正為「先使用與先註冊並行主義」,而非改採先註冊主義。故前述台灣高等法院96年度上易字第597號判決以美國法上之「fairly and in good faith」解釋我國商標法之「善意先使用」實對於我國與美國之商標體制差異有欠考量。綜上所述,本文認同台灣台北地方法院93年度智字第70號判決,「善意」先使用應以第三人非明知系爭商標已使用為要件。

Lastly America employs first-to-use system, despite that there was some amendment after year 1998, however it is still ‘first-to use-and-register-system’, not the first-to-register system. Therefore in the previously described case of Taiwan Taipei District Court 96 years Zhang Yi No. 597’s “fairly and in good faith” indicates Taiwan and America’s differences in Trademark’s ‘first-to-use’ system. For the summary above, the author personally believe that the case verdict from the case of Taiwan Taipei District Court 93 years Zhi No. 70, is to consider whether the third person used its registered trademark as one of the elements by employing its ‘bona fide’ prior use doctrine.

參考資料 References

1.經濟部智慧財產局,《商標法逐條釋義》,2005年5月。

Intellectual Property Office (2005, May) Trademark Act Interpretation.

2.台灣台北地方法院93年度智字第70號判決

Taiwan Taipei District Court 93 years Zhi No. 70 Case

3.台灣高等法院96年度上易字第597號判決

Taiwan Taipei District Court 96 years Zhang Yi No. 597 Case 

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商標權之侵害及救濟

Infringement of registered trademark and its remedy

眾律國際法律事務所|眾律國際專利商標事務所|專利工程師暨法務 簡敏丞

Zoomlaw Attorneys-At-Law|Zoomlaw IP Attorneys|Patent Engineer and Legal Assistant Cheng-Ming Jane

壹、民事責任之侵害行為及法律效果

1. Violations of Civil Liability and its legal effect

一、一般侵害之行為

(1) General Infringement                                                                       

台灣商標法第61條第2項明文規定:『未經商標權人同意,而有第29條第2款規定情形之一者,為侵害商標權。』而第29條第2項所規定之各款,即對於商標權排他效力之規定,必須要得到商標權人之同意,否則即為侵害商標權人之商標權,其包括下列情形:

Taiwan’s Trademark Act Article 61, paragraph 2 expressly indicates that: “in the course of trade, without consent of the proprietor of a registered trademark in any of the following act, constitute infringement and the right of such trademark.” Article 29, paragraph 2 listed out all grounds for refusal of registration that any of the following acts, without consent of the proprietor of a registered trademark, shall be deemed as infringement of its trademark right:

(一) 於同一商品或服務,使用相同於註冊商標之商標者。

Using a trademark which is identical with the registered trademark in relation to goods or services which are identical with those for which it is registered.

(二) 於類似之商品或服務,使用相同於註冊商標之商標,有致消費者混淆誤認之虞者。

Using a trademark which is identical with the registered trademark and used in relation to goods or services similar to those for which the registered one is designated, and hence there exists a likelihood of confusion on relevant consumers.

(三) 於同一類似之商品或服務,使用近似於其註冊商標之商標,有致 消費者混淆誤認之虞者。

Using a trademark which is similar to the registered trademark and used in relation to goods or services identical with or similar to those for which the registered one is designated, and hence there exists a likelihood of confusion on relevant consumers.

因此由上述條文可知,一般商標權之侵害要件包括:

1.未經商標權人同意,而使用其商標。

2.具有商標法第29條第2項之任何一種規定情形。

3.行為與損害具有因果關係。(行為人是否具有故意或過失為必要條件,上述條文並未明定,而目前學說上與實務上均採肯定見解,請參閱王澤鑑,侵權行為法,2005年,第69頁;台灣高等法院93年度上字第752號民事判決)

 From the above, we can know that infringement of registered trademark includes:

1. without proprietor of a registered trademark’s consent and to use its trademark.

2. satisfy any of the grounds for refusal listed in Article 29, paragraph 2.

3. causal relationship between conduct and result. (whether the actor willfully or negligently causes the accomplishment of the constituent elements of an offence, where such act is not expressly indicated. There is affirmative opinions for its theory and practice, please see Ze-Jian Wang (2005) Tort Law. Taiwan High Court 93 year Zi section No. 752 civil judgements, page 69).

二、擬制侵害之行為

Acts of Infringement (fiction)

台灣商標法第62條明文規定:『未經過商標人同意,有下列情形之一者,視為侵害商標權: 一、明知為他人著名之註冊商標而使用相同或近似之商標或以該著名商標中之文字作為自己公司名稱、商號名稱、網域名稱或其他表彰營業主體或來源之標識,致減損著名商標之識別性或信譽者。二、明知為他人著名之註冊商標,而已該商標中之文字作為自己公司名稱、商號名稱、網域名稱或其他表彰營業主體或來源之標識,致商品或服務相關消費者混淆誤認者。』因此就條文內容而言,該條為侵害商標權之擬制規定。

Taiwan’s Trademark Act Article 62 expressly indicates that: “any of the following acts, without consent of the proprietor of a registered trademark, shall be deemed as trademark infringement:

(1) knowingly using a trademark which is identical with or similar to another person’s well-known registered trademark, and hence there exists a likelihood of dilution of the distinctiveness or reputation of the said well-known trademark;

(2) knowingly using words contained in another person’s well-known registered trademark as the name of a company, business, group or domain or any other name that identifies a business entity, and hence there exists a likelihood of confusion on relevant consumers or a likelihood of dilution of the distinctiveness or reputation of the said well-known trademark.” If you infringed any of acts mentioned here would constitute acts of infringement.”

因此由上述條文第1款可知,擬制商標權之侵害要件包括:

1.『明知』為他人著名之註冊商標。

2.他人已註冊之商標

3.須有使用相同或近似之商標或以該著名商標中之文字作為自己公司名稱、商號名稱或其他表彰營業主體貨來源標識之事實。

4.須有致減損該著名商標之識別性或信譽之結果。

5.須有使用之行為且未得商標權人同意。

From the above Act, paragraph 1, we can know acts of infringements include:

1.’ knowingly’ using a trademark which is identical with or similar to another person’s well-known registered trademark

2. registered trademark of another

3. knowingly using words contained in another person’s well-known registered trademark as the name of a company, business, group or domain or any other name that identifies a business entity

4. there exists a likelihood of dilution of the distinctiveness or reputation of the said well-known trademark

5. uses such trademark without proprietor of a registered trademark of a registered trademark’s consent.

而上述條文第2款擬制商標權之侵害要件包括:

1.『明知』為他人著名之註冊商標。

2.他人已註冊之商標

3.須有使用相同或近似之商標或以該著名商標中之文字作為自己公司名稱、商號名稱或其他表彰營業主體貨來源標識之事實。

4.須致商品或服務相關消費者產生混淆誤認之結果。

5.須有使用之行為且未得商標權人同意。

From the above Act, paragraph 2, we can know acts of infringements include:

1.’ knowingly’ using a trademark which is identical with or similar to another person’s well-known registered trademark

2. registered trademark of another

3. knowingly using words contained in another person’s well-known registered trademark as the name of a company, business, group or domain or any other name that identifies a business entity

4. there exists a likelihood of confusion on relevant consumers in relation to goods or services similar to those for which the registered trademark or collective trademark is designated.

5. uses such trademark without proprietor of a registered trademark’s consent.

三、侵害商標權之民事責任

Trademark Infringement and its Civil Liability

商標權人受侵害時,得主張:

Proprietor of a registered trademark may commence civil legal proceedings against a party which infringes its registered trademark when:

1.行使損害賠償、排除侵害或防止妨害請求權。

The rights to demand for damage compensations、infringement injunction or to prevent nuisance.

2.銷毀或其他必要處置之請求(商標法第61條第3項)

Request destruction or other necessary disposition (Trademark Act Article 61, Paragraph 3)

3.判決書內容之登載(商標法第64條)

The content of verdict (Trademark Act Article 64)

至於商標權之損害賠償請求方面,計算方式得就下列『擇一』

For its damage claim, you can choose ‘one’ of the following calculation methods:

1.具體計算(民法216條)

The actual calculation (Civil Law Article 216)

2.差額(通常所獲得之利益減去受侵害之利益)

Its difference (usually that is calculated based on the difference between the benefit received in general minus benefits received from infringement)

3.侵害所得利益

Benefits received from such infringement  

4.銷售額

Total Sales

5.零售單價乘以500-1500倍或是總價(商標法第63條第1項3款、同法63條第2項)

Retail price times 500-1500 or its total price (Trademark Act 63, paragraph 1(3) 、Trademark Act 63, Paragraph 2)

貳、刑事責任之侵害行為與罰則

商標法第81條、同法第82條及第83條均對於侵害商標權之刑罰作出具體規定,分別科處三年以下有期徒刑、拘役或併科新台幣二十萬元以下罰金;一年以下有期徒刑、拘役或併科新台幣五萬元以下罰金;並對於侵害商標權所製造、販賣、陳列、輸出或輸入之商品,或所提供於服務使用之物品或文書均沒收之,除了滅失之情況外,不問是否扣案或是屬於何人所有,法院並無斟酌餘地,須宣告沒收。

Violations and penalties for criminal responsibility

Trademark Act 81、Trademark Act 82 and 83 all have specific provision for trademark infringement, shall be liable to imprisonment for a period not exceeding three years and/or a fine not exceeding NT$200,000; be liable to imprisonment for a period not exceeding one year and/or a fine not exceeding $50,000; manufacturing, possessing, displaying, selling, exporting or important labels, tags, packaging or containers that have not been applied in relation to services, knowing that such articles would likely infringe its trademark rights, unless it is loss, the court shall demand confiscation regardless of whether such articles or documents belong to the offender.

參考資料:

References:  

商標法(民國100 年06 月29 日修正),智慧財產法院,全國法規資料庫

Trademark Law (amended on 29 th June 2011), Intellectual Property Rights Court, Laws & Regulations Database of the Republic of China.

http://law.moj.gov.tw/LawClass/LawContent.aspx?PCODE=J0070001

商標法施行細則(民國101 年06 月29 日修正),智慧財產法院,全國法規資料庫

Trademark Law Enforcement Rules (amended on 29 th June 2011), Intellectual Property Rights Court, Laws & Regulations Database of the Republic of China.

http://law.moj.gov.tw/LawClass/LawContent.aspx?PCODE=J0070002

台灣高等法院94年智上易字第5號判決。

Taiwan High Court 94 years Chi Yi Zi No. 5 Case.

最高法院48年台上字第1934號判例。

Supreme Court 48 years Tai No. 1934 Case.

最高法院79年台上字第249號判決。

Supreme Court years 79 Tai No. 1934 Case.

最高法院91年台上字第2576號判決。

Supreme Court years 91 Tai No. 2576 Case.

最高法院88年台上字第1944號判決。

Supreme Court years 88 Tai No. 1944 Case.

最高法院80年台上字第1773號等判決。

Supreme Court years 80 Tai No. 1773.

汪渡村,商標法論,台北,五南,2011年,第275-341頁。

Du-Chun Wang (2011) Trademark Law Theory, Taipei, Five South, page 275-341.

徐振雄,智慧財產權法,台北,新文京開發出版,2010年,第151-158頁。

Zhen-Xiong Xu (2010) Intellectual Property Law, Taipei, Xinwen Beijing Development Publisher, page 151-158.

謝銘洋,智慧財產權法,台北,元照,2009年,第334-337頁。

Ming-Yang Xie (2009) Intellectual Property Law, Taipei, Yuanzhao, page 334-337.

陳銘祥、吳尚昆、陳昭華、張凱娜,智慧財產權與法律,台北,元照,2009年,第90-95頁。

Chen, M.Y., Wu, S.K., Chen, Z. H., Zhang, K.N., Intellectual Property Right and Laws, Taipei, Yuanzhao, page 90-95. 

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各國之商標公序良俗簡介 眾律國際法律事務所實習律師陳映青

Introduction of trademark’s public order and morality in different countries

By Intern Lawyer Ying-Qing Chen (Zoomlaw Attorneys-At-Law)

壹、美國[1]

1. United States of America[1]

一、美國1946年商標法§2(a)[2]

商標申請內容包含不道德、欺罔或可恥的事項,或由該等事項構成者,得不予註冊商標。

1. U.S. Trademark Act of 1946§2(a) (15U.S.C.§1052)

No trademark by which the goods of the applicant may be distinguished from the goods of others shall be refused registration on the principal register on account of its nature unless consists of or comprises immoral, deceptive, or scandalous matters.

二、商標審查程序手冊(TMEP)

「可恥的」在一般詞彙意義中,表示一種對行為規範具有衝擊性,對於良知、道德具有侵害性,或是具有可譴責性的詞語;法律意義上,則包含道德層面上粗俗之意義。在商標申請案之審查上,應綜合當時社會現狀下普遍大眾對於一般和法律意義面向上「可恥」意義之認知。實務常見案件類型如涉及宗教、種族、性、藥品、暴力、低俗圖文等。

2. Trademark Examination Procedure Manual (TEMPT)

The word “shame” in its general meaning means a kind of code of conduct with aggressive behavior in terms of its consciousness and morality which carries invasive nature or condemnatory words. In the eyes of the law, it includes a sense of morality. In its trademark application examination, examiner should consider what the general public thinks what “shame” is. Cases we see generally as references involves religion, race, sex, drugs, violence, and vulgar graphics and so on.

貳、澳洲[3]

2. Australia

一、澳洲1995年商標法§42[4]

商標申請內容含有可恥事項,或尤其所構成者,不得註冊。

        1. Australia Trade Marks Act 1995-Sect 42

                An application for the registration of a trade mark must be rejected if:

                (a) the trademark contains or consist of scandalous matter; or

                (b) its use would be contrary to law.

二、商標實務及程序手冊

「可恥的」指不名譽,不道德,具有汙衊、誹謗性質,或具可譴責性之詞語。判斷上應遵循時下之社會價值,從一般相關公眾之觀點著眼,考量商標之使用情況,並避免主觀意見之滲入。

    2. Trademark Examination Procedure Manual

The word “Shame” means dishonorable, immoral which carries the nature of libelous and defamatory nature or may have condemnation of words. When making its discretion, we should consider its social value at public and how such trademark is being used to prevent any subjective point of view when examining its patent application.

參、歐盟[5]

3. European

一、歐洲共同體商標條例§7I.(f)[6]

商標違反公共政策或公認道德原則者,不應被註冊。

1. Council Regulation (EC) No 207|2009 §7I.(f)[6]:

Trademarks which are contrary to public policy or to accepted principles of morality shall not be registered.

二、商標實務手冊

「公共政策」為民主法制所需之規範,「公認道德原則」為維繫社會功能所需之原則。

2. Trademark Examination Procedure Manual

“Public policy” is the considered necessary for its nature justice; “public moral principles” is to maintain its public social order.

肆、英國[7]

4. England

一、英國1994年商標法§3(3)(a)[8]

商標違反公共政策或公認道德原則者,不得註冊。

1. UK Trade Marks Act 1994§3(3)(a)

A trademark shall not be registered if it is contrary to public policy or to accepted principles of morality, or of such a nature as to deceive the public (for instance as to the nature, quality or geographical origin of the goods or services).

二、商標實務手冊

「公共政策」旨在防止公共秩序、防範犯罪。「公認道德原則」則在維護宗教、社會或家庭價值。若商標之用語依其商品或服務之性質,客觀上在公眾間具有冒犯之顯著性者,即屬違反公認道德。

2. Trademark Examination Procedure Manual

The purpose of “Public policy” is to prevent social disorder and crime. “Public moral principles” is to preserve its value of religion、social and family values. If such trademark word, from an objective point of view, carries offensive characteristics which relates to its product and service, examiner would treat such application as contrary to public moral values.

伍、日本[9]

5. Japan

一、日本商標法§4I⑦[10]

商標有妨害公共秩序或善良風俗之虞者,不得註冊。

1. Japan Trade Mark Law §4 I ⑦:

No trademark shall be registered if the trademark is likely to cause damage to public policy;

二、商標審查基準

有「妨害公共秩序或善良風俗之虞」之商標,指(1).商標本身含有低俗、歧視或負面印象之圖文,或(2).商標與其商品、服務結合後將有背於社會公益道德者。實務操作上,除符合上述兩事由之情形外,法定禁止使用、違反國際信義、混淆國家資格、獨占歷史著名人物名稱或欠缺社會妥當性之項目,亦同屬有害公序良俗之虞者。

2. Trademark Examination Procedure Manual

       If there is trademark that infringed its public order and morality, meaning (1) the trademark itself carries inferiority、discrimination or negative influence photography, or (2) trademark or other products, services together that is contrary to public moral values. In practice, except for the two conditions mentioned above, the law infringed its usage、violation of international values、confuses national qualification、possess its historical name exclusively or lack of social validity would be treated as contrary to public order and morality.

陸、我國

6. Taiwan

一、中華民國商標法§30⑦:

妨害公共秩序或善良風俗者,不得註冊商標。

1. Taiwan Trademark Act 2011 §30⑦:

A trademark shall not be registered that is being contrary to public policy or to accepted principles of morality.

二、商標法逐條釋義

「公共秩序」指國家社會一般利益。「善良風俗」指社會一般道德觀念。判斷上,凡申請項目之形式或實質意義上,在當時社會價值觀念下依其使用情況判斷,具有下列事由者即屬之。

  2. Trademark Examination Procedure Manual

“Public order” means the welfare or well-being of the general public. “Moral standards” means morality accepted by public. By judgement, when making its application, factors below would be taken into consideration.  

 1. 損害國家、民族或社會之尊嚴者。

Damages to its country’s public image、ethnic group or social values.

 2. 鼓勵或煽惑犯罪、違法或擾亂社會秩序者。

        Encourage or to induce crimes、infringed the law or to disturb its social order.

 3. 非法組織、叛亂團體或盜匪、幫派等集團或個人之標記者。

Illegal organization、extreme groups or robbery、gangsters or other related groups.

4. 易使人產生恐怖、醜惡感而影響社會心理健康者。

Causes fears of others、ugly feelings that carries bad influences on psychosocial health.

5. 對於某一國家、種族、地區、宗教、團體、職業或個人表示侮辱或不尊重者。

Shows disrespect or insult to a certain country、race、region、religion、group、occupation or individual.

6. 違悖倫理,提倡迷信或敗壞風化者。

Unethical, promote superstition or culture of prostitution.

柒、代結論

7. Conclusion

在商標審查要求上,各國多有將「公序良俗」列入審查事由。因各國風土民情不盡相同,故其具體適用上可能產生不同之結果。然而在審查判斷上,其大體均以「客觀角度」和「當時社會價值」基準。此外,各國審查之參考項目亦得為我國之商標審查時之參考依據。

In terms of its trademark examination, many countries would take the “Public order and morality’ into consideration. Due to its cultural differences, how examiners view your application may be different according to its culture and values. However examiners would use its “objective point of view” and its “social value at that time” as fundamental examination criteria when examining its application. This is a good example of how other countries take the “Public order and morality” into consideration and we may also apply their principles to our country.

參考資料及連結:

1. 陳宏杰,商標違反公序良俗之研究—我國相關法令與歐、英、奧、美實務探討,智慧財產權月刊第158期,民國101  年2月。

2. 鍾桂華,商標違反公序良俗之研究—日本實務及案例探討,智慧財產權月刊第158期,民國101年2月。

3. 中華民國商標法逐條釋義。

References:

1. Hong-Jie Chen (2012, February). Trademark and its violation of public order and morality studies – Taiwan’s related statues with European、England、Australia and America in practice , Intellectual Property Monthly Article 158.

2. Gui-Hua Zhong (2012, February). Trademark and its violation of public order and morality studies-Japan Case studies and discussion, Intellectual Property Monthly Article 158.

3. Taiwan Trademark Act Statute Interpretation.


[1]陳宏杰,商標違反公序良俗之研究—我國相關法令與歐、英、奧、美實務探討,智慧財產權月刊第158期,民國101年2月,第24~36頁。

[2]Trademark Act of 1946§2(a) (15U.S.C.§1052).-Trademarks registrable on the principal register; concurrent registration

「No trademark by which the goods of the applicant may be distinguished from the goods of others shall be refused registration on the principal register on account of its nature unless it--

(a) Consists of or comprises immoral, deceptive, or scandalous matter; or matter which may disparage or falsely suggest a connection with persons, living or dead, institutions, beliefs, or national symbols, or bring them into contempt, or disrepute; or a geographical indication which, when used on or in connection wines or spirits, identifies a place by the applicant on or after one year after the date on which the WTO Agreement (as defined in section 3501(9) of the title 19) enters into force with respect to the United States.」

[3]同註1,第19~21。

[4]AU Trade Marks Act 1995 §42

「An application for the registration of a trade mark must be rejected if:

(a)      the trade mark contains or consists of scandalous matter.」

[5]同註1,第13~14頁。

[6]COUNCIL REGULATION (EC) No 207/2009 of 26 February 2009 on the Community trade mark

Article 7 Absolute grounds for refusal

1.The following shall not be registered:

(f)trade marks which are contrary to the public policy or to accepted principles of morality;

[7]同註1,第13~16頁。

[8]UK Trade Marks Act 1994§3(3)(a)

「A trade mark shall not be registered if it is-

(a)      Contrary to public policy or to accepted principles of morality explicit/taboo signs.」

[9]鍾桂華,商標違反公序良俗之研究—日本實務及案例探討,智慧財產權月刊第158期,民國101年2月,第38~39頁。

[10]日本商标法§4 I ⑦:

「关于下列商标,虽有前条规定,不能进行商标注册:

(7)有可能危害公共秩序或良好风俗的商标;」



[1] Hong-Jie Chen (2012, February). Trademark and its violation of public order and morality studies – Taiwan’s related statues with European、England、Australia and America in practice , Intellectual Property Monthly Article 158, page 24-36. 

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商標註冊之優點 律師張源傑

Advantages for Trademark Registration

By Yuan Jie, Cheng (Attorney-At-Law)

一、商標權於註冊後方獲得保障[1]

1. Protection covered once trademark is registered 

我國商標制度是以註冊保護為原則。因此,商標依法申請註冊取得商標權後,註冊商標除了可以自己使用及授權他人使用外,還可以排除他人以相同或近似的商標指定使用於同一或類似商品或服務上。因此,商標如欲獲得法律上權利之保障,必須依法註冊;註冊後其保護之效力及於全國。

Taiwan employs a first-to-register system for trademark protection. Therefore, once such trademark obtained its trademark in compliance of law after registration, the registered owner can use its registered trademark exclusively or to authorize such trademark to others. In addition, the registered trademark can exclude others from using the same kind of goods or similar goods shall apply for registration of an associated trademark. Therefore, if you want to gain legal protection of your trademark, you must register such trademark by law. Such protection would cover its protection in the whole country.[1]

二、對於侵害商標權之人請求損害賠償[2]

2. Damages claim for trademark infringement[2]

如果有任何人未經商標權人同意使用該註冊商標,有侵害商標權人使用、收益或有侵害商標權之可能情形,商標權人可以請求排除或防止商標權被侵害;對於故意或過失侵害商標權的人,也可以請求損害賠償。

If anyone used its trademark without authorization from trademark owner, there are possibilities that you have infringed trademark owners’ right in terms of its usage, gaining or trademark infringement. If you are the trademark owner, you could exclude or to prevent such trademark infringement and to request for damage claim from people who has infringed your right intentionally or by negligent.

三、商標權具有財[3]

3. Trademark has its own property value[3]

商標權是一種財產權,可以將註冊商標轉賣或用以設定質權,以增加資產價值。馳名之商標具有高度的市場價值,更是有加以保障之必要。倘若不予註冊,日後商標被廣為使用時,甚至有可能成為通用標章[4]而被各界合法使用,喪失商標權人原本訂立標章之目的。

Trademark is treated as property. Registered trademark can be resold or to be perceived as “good quality” so as to increase its value of assets, which is why it is necessary to register its trademark to reach its maximum value.  If you chose not to register such trademark, which later such trademark is widely used, such trademark may become generic trademark[4] that allows public to use such trademark legitimately. In result of this, it lost its trademark owner’s original intent to maximize its trademark value exclusively.

四、防止混淆、搶註、仿冒等惡意行為[5]

To prevent confusion, cybersquatting, phishing and other malicious acts[5]

商標註冊後,因為具有法律上效力,可以有效防止他人註冊相類似之商標;或是在商標權利人註冊之前予以搶註,造成原本權利人權利維護之困擾;也可以依商標權人之身分取締仿冒行為,遏止犯罪行為發生。

 Once trademark is registered, it is enforceable by law. By doing so can prevent others to register the same or similar trademark or for others to register such trademark rights before you. This will cause its trademark owner much distress to preserve its right with protection. Therefore trademark owners should combat this by counterfeiting in accordance with the trademark owner’s identity so as to prevent any criminal violation.

註冊商標的好處,不僅能保護現有之市場不被他人以不正當方式侵犯,增強商標的市場價值。保障商標不被他人使用,維護商品的信譽和形象。註冊了的商標不僅可以增強消費者的認同感,還可以增強企業自身維護品牌價值的信念,提升品牌形象,有利於企業之成長與拓展[6]

 Benefits for trademark registration does not only protect the existing trademark from infringement, but to gain its trademark market value. It also protects its trademark not to be used by others so as to maintain its product’s creditability and image.  Registered trademark does not only enhance consumer’s sense of identity, but to maintain its value of brand and image for which would assist its corporation to reach out further in terms of its growth and expansion.[6]

[1]經濟部智慧財產局,商標申請註冊有甚麼好處?https://www.tipo.gov.tw/ct.asp?xItem=214845&ctNode...

[2]同上文。

[3]經濟部智慧財產局,認識商標,第3頁。https://www.tipo.gov.tw/ct.asp?xItem=535857&ctNode...

[4]商標識別性審查基準,第6頁,中華民國97年12月31日經濟部經授智字第09720031750號令訂定發布,98年1月1日生效中華民國101年4月20日經濟部經授智字第10120030550號令修正發布,101年7月1日生效。

對相關消費者而言,通用標章或名稱只是一般業者用來表示或指稱商品或服務本身,缺乏識別來源的功能,例如:「紅、藍、白三色旋轉霓虹燈」為理容院的通用標章、「開心果」為阿月渾子果實的俗稱、「阿拉比卡Arabica」為咖啡樹的品種名稱,不僅消費者無法藉以識別來源,且應避免由一人取得排他專屬權而影響公平競爭,或以訴訟干擾他人使用該用語,故不得由特定人註冊專用。

[5]經濟部智慧財產局,認識商標,第3頁。

[6] http://chainasiaip.com/index.php?do=lib&id=235



[1] What are the benefits for trademark registration? Ministry of Economic Affairs Intellectual Property Office.

https://www.tipo.gov.tw/ct.asp?xItem=214845&ctNode...

[2] Ibid.

[3] Trademark Recognition, Ministry of Economic Affairs Intellectual Property Office, page 3, https://www.tipo.gov.tw/ct.asp?xItem=535857&ctNode=7078&mp=1

[4] Trademark Recognition review benchmark, page 6, release by the Ministry of Economic Affairs granted 09720031750 Chi Zi Decree set release, Republic of China on December 31 1997. Takes effect on 1st of July 2013. For consumers, generic trademark or its brand name only indicate its goods or services from general industry’s point of view. It is used to identify its distinguish from its resource and functionality. For example, "red, blue and white tricolor rotating neon" is treated as general trademark used by hair and beauty salon. "Pistachio" is known as pistachio fruit. “Arabica” is the name of the coffee tree. It makes it hard for consumers to identity its sources directly. In order to prevent such confusion, it is to prevent from gaining such exclusive privilege of possessive right to influence its fair trade competition or to interfere with others using the term ‘litigation’; therefore registration as such is prohibited.

[5] Understand Trademark, Ministry of Economic Affairs Intellectual Property Office, page 3.

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台灣商標程序之註冊商標程序助理陳芃

Trademark registration procedure in Taiwan 

Trademark application assistant Chen Peng 

我國現行商標法係採取註冊主義及先申請主義。我國商標法第二條明定,欲取得商標權、證明標章權、團體標章權或團體商標權者,應依本法申請註冊。

Taiwan employs a first-to-register system for trademark protection. Article 2 of the Trademark Law in Taiwan expressly indicates that “Any person who wishes to obtain the rights of trademark, certificate mark, collective membership mark, or collective trademark shall apply for registration therefore in accordance with this Act.”

一、申請人

1. Applicant

申請人應具備之主觀要件為確具使用意思,客觀要件則須為表彰自己營業之商品者。其中所謂之營業,依商標法施行細則第五條之規定事項認定之,包括公司登記、商業登記、營利事業登記等項目,或具體營業計劃、股東會決議及其他相關事證。

Applicant should be subjective to ensure the purpose of application but to be objective when representing its sales of commodities. For its business operation, it is necessary to comply with Rule 5 of the Enforcement Rules of Trademark Act, including its company registration, business registration, operation business, or specific business plans, shareholder meetings or any other related matters.

是以,只要具備上述要件者,不論其為自然人、法人或外國人,皆具申請人之資格。

Therefore, as long as the person fulfilled its requirements listed above, any natural persons, legal person or foreigners would be qualified to apply.

二、商標代理人

2. Trademark Attorney

有關申請商標註冊及其相關事務,除由本人自行處理外亦得委由代理人為之。所謂商標代理人,指在國內有住所之自然人,為當事人利益,基於法規規定,代理當事人項商標專責機關請求為商標許可、認可或其他授益行為之公法上意思表示者而言。

Anything in relation to trademark registration or all the other legal matters, unless it is handled by person itself, you can appoint an agent to do so. Trademark Attorney is defined as a natural person that has its means of country residence, to act for the interest of the parties, to seek its trademark license, approval, or other acts of authorization according to the Public Law for its trademark application.

三、應備之文件及其記載

3. Required documents and description

申請商標註冊,應由申請人備具申請書,載名商標、指定使用之商品或服務及其類別,向商標專責機關申請之。有關商品及服務之分類,為決定商標權範圍之重要依據應具明確記載。又申請人得以一商標註冊申請案,指定使用於二個以上類別之商品或服務。

In order to register its trademark, the applicant should get all the documentations ready including its application, name of the trademark, appointed use of goods and services and its classification to its Intellectual Property Office for registration. According to its classification of goods and services, such application should be clearly listed in order to determine its scope of trademark right. On the other hand, trademark applicant may appoint two or more categories of goods or services when lodging its trademark application.

而依商標法規定,申請人應將商標包含之說明性或不具識別性事項聲明不專用,始能取得商標註冊。其規範目的,主要在防止商標權利範圍之爭議,在造成無爭議的情形下,商標專責機關將透過依法職權聲明不專用方式,以簡化審查程序提升效益。

According to its Trademark Act regulation, applicant shall include its trademark description or its non-distinguishable characteristics into its trademark application. The purpose for such standard is to prevent any disputes arises for the scope of trademark rights. In order to prevent such situation, its Trademark Authorities would, according to its powers according to the law, to simplify its review process to improve its productivities.

四、申請事項之變更

4. Amendments to application

申請人之名稱、地址、代理人或其他註冊申請事項變更者,應向商標專責機關申請變更。又並非所有事項均得變更,商標圖樣及其指定使用之商品或服務,申請後即不得變更。

Changes to the name or address of the applicant, the trademark agent, or any other particulars in an application for registration shall be made by filing a request therefor with the Registrar Office.

但指定使用商品或服務之減縮,或非就商標圖樣為實質變更者,不在此限。因其係縮小申請註冊之範圍,不影響申請日且對審查效率亦無減損,故不在禁止變更之列。(商標法第23、24條)。

Unless such amendment is a restriction of designated goods or services or an amendment to the reproduction of a trademark which does not substantially change such trademark. By narrowing the scope of application would not derogate its efficiency on examination nor to influence its calculation period. Such amendment would not be restricted. (Article 23 and 24 of Trademark Act)

五、先申請主義

5. First-to-register system

商標權利之取得應依申請時間之先後加以審查,故於同一或類似商品,以相同或近似的商標提出申請者,應由先提出申請者取得商標權。

(商標法第30條第10款)

To obtain its trademark rights, it should be reviewed in accordance with the application period, if such trademark is found to be the same or similar to the other trademark, the first-to-register person would grant its trademark right.

(Trademark Act Article 30 (10))

六、主管機關

6. Authorities

本法之主管機關為經濟部。商標業務,由經濟部指定專責機關辦理。(商標法第3條)

The Competent Authority of this Act is the Ministry of Economic Affairs (hereinafter as the MOEA). Trademark affairs shall be administered under a registrar office appointed by the MOEA. (Trademark Act Article 3).

七、期日及期間

7. Dates and Time

有關期間之計算,商標法並無明文規定,但民法第120條,有始日不計算在內之規定,解釋上應採同一解釋,至於商標法有關商標權10年之期間,則應自註冊公告當日起。

According to its period calculation, there is no express provision listed in the Trademark Law. However according to the Civil Code Section 120, the beginning date shall not be included into such calculation, such interpretation shall be adopted to have its same effect here. The proprietor of a registered trademark shall have the exclusive right of the trademark for a period of ten years from the date of publication of registration.

八、商標優先權

8. Trademark Priority

商標法第20條即規定,在與中華民國有相互承認優先權之國家或世界貿易組織會員,依法申請註冊之商標,其申請人於第一次申請日後六個月內,向中華民國就該申請同一之部分或全部商品或服務,以相同商標申請註冊者,得主張優先權。外國申請人為非世界貿易組織會員之國民且其所屬國家與中華民國無相互承認優先權者,如於互惠國或世界貿易組織會員領域內,設有住所或營業所者,得依前項規定主張優先權。

According to Article 20, an applicant who has duly filed an application for trademark registration in a country which has reciprocal recognition of priority rights with the ROC, or filed such application with a member of the World Trade Organization, may claim a right of priority, for the purpose of registering the same trademark in the ROC for some or all the same goods or services, within six months from the day following the date of filing of the first such application.

An applicant of a foreign country which is not a member of the WHOT nor a country having reciprocal recognition of priority rights with the ROC, may claim a right of priority pursuant to the preceding paragraph if he/she is domiciled or has a business establishment in the territory of a country which has reciprocal recognition of priority rights with the ROC or in the territory of a member of the WTO.

優先權制度是於一定期間內,保護商標申請人不受商標地域性限制之規定,其主要目的是為,避免商標申請人常因商標權屬地性之特性,造成申請人不易取得國際性保護之憾。

The purpose for such priority system is that during a certain period, in order to prevent its trademark applicant to regret not to receive its global protection due to its first-to-register system, the trademark applicant can receive its protection without its territorial limits.

九、送達及公報

9. Service and report

送達者,是指商標專責機關依一定程序,將文書或其他特定事項,通知特定當事人之行政行為。須經合法送達,始生一定法律效果。

Delivery person means a form of administrative action for its Trademark authorities to follow certain procedures to have its documentations and other specific matters delivered to the other parties. Once such documentation is delivered, such documentation is considered as valid in the eyes of law.

為避免消費者對產品或服務之來源產生混淆,商標專責機關應刊行公報,登載註冊商標及其相關事項,以供消費者參考,同時亦可避免他人誤用已經註冊之商標。

In order to prevent any confusion for its consumer products and services, the Trademark Authorities shall print and publish its recent approved registered trademark and all other related matters to public, in order to prevent misuse of its registered trademark by mistake.

參考文獻

Reference

曾陳明汝,商標法原理,2000年8月,曾陳明汝。        

Cheng-Ming-Ru Cheng, The Principles of Trademark Law, August 2000, Cheng-Ming-Ru Cheng.

汪渡村,商標法論,2011年2月二版,五南。

Du-Chun Wang, Principles of Trademark Law, February 2011, 2nd edition, Fifth South.

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什麼樣的商標可以註冊律師張源傑

What kind of trademark can be registered?

By Yuan Jie, Cheng (Attorney-At-Law)

一、前言:

1. Introduction:

如果一個商標是在說明商品或服務來自於特定業者,則可以註冊;如果一個商標是在說明商品或服務的內容是什麼,就不可以註冊。

If a trademark is describing its product and service for a particular industry, such trademark can be registered; however if a trademark is describing what a particular goods and services are, such trademark cannot be registered.

二、什麼樣的商標可以申請註冊[1]:

What kind of trademark can be registered?[1]

第一種可以註冊的商標,例如google。Google使用於網路搜尋之網站,是一個與網路搜尋毫不相關的名稱,也就是完全創新的名稱,因此可以註冊。反之,如果想註冊「網路搜尋」「快速」等商標於網路搜尋網站,因為這些名稱與服務之內容相同或是相關,因此不得註冊。

第二種可以註冊的商標,例如Apple。Apple是電腦製造商,雖然使用了蘋果一詞,但賣的是電腦,與蘋果全然無關,因此可以註冊。反之,Apple如果用於果汁、水果、或是香料等與蘋果會有相關之商品時,則不得註冊。

第三種可以註冊的商標,例如快譯通用於電子字典。快譯通三個字並非直接敘述電子字典之功能,可是當消費者運用一些想像、思考、感受或推理後,才能夠領會商標與商品或服務間有關連性,因此可以註冊。

First kind of trademark can be registered is Google, for example. Google uses its Internet search engine, which is completely an innovative name and can therefore be registered as search and network. On the other hand, if you want to register “internet search” “speed” which are relevant to internet search engine’s website and to register them with your trademark, such keywords can’t be registered due to its similarities with its name and service contents.

Second kind of trademark can be registered is Apple, for example. Apple is classified as computer manufacture, even though apple uses its name ‘Apple’ but its product is completely irrelevant to Apple, therefore it can be registered. On the other hand, if Apple uses its brand name to sell juices, fruits, spices, or any associated merchandise of Apple, such name cannot be registered.

Third kind of trademark can be registered is instant dictionary, for example, that is used for electronic dictionary. Instant dictionary does not directly describe its electronic dictionary function, but consumers would need to use some imagination, consideration and feelings associated with analysis before knowing such trademark does associate to its electronic product and services. Therefore such trademark can be registered.

三、爭議之產生

3. Arising Controversial Issues

上述第三種可以註冊之商標,很容易產生爭議。快譯通三個字,難道不是在描述電子字典之特性嗎?電子字典特質不就是比紙本字典「快」,翻「譯」之功能以及「通」曉文義之作用嗎?

反觀主管機關對於「自然呼吸」之商標用於襪子申請卻拒絕註冊[2]。判決理由認為自然呼吸四個字會讓人聯想到這種襪子穿了之後有自然透氣的舒適感,因此自然呼吸四個字是對商品之說明,而不是只有隱喻的性質。試問:襪子會自然呼吸難道不是消費者經由想像、思考、感受或推理而得來的感受嗎?難道襪子有肺而且能自然呼吸嗎?認定標準到底在哪裡呢?

The three examples listed above are examples can be registered as trademark. However there may be some controversial issues arises along the way. For example, many people may have question of doubt that isn’t the name “instant dictionary” relevant to electronic dictionary’s characteristics? The nature of electronic dictionary carries its meaning that it’s ‘faster’ than normal paper dictionary, the word ‘translation’s functionality is the same as knowledgeable?

On the other hand, the managerial authorities rejected its application in relation to socks when it comes to the word “natural breathing”[2] The judicial reasoning behind this was due to the word “natural breathing” would implies with natural breathable comfort which isn’t metaphor in nature. Unless socks itself have lungs that is naturally breathable, isn’t it true that socks should be naturally breathable for consumers to use its imagination, consideration and judgment to have this kind of feelings? Where are the standard criteria when it comes to classification as such?

四、結論

4.  Conclusion

商標能否註冊之抽象標準看似無困難,但是實務個案之具體認定差異甚大。一個商標是否能註冊,往往牽涉到主管機關之主觀判斷,沒有一定之標準。遇到被主管機關核駁申請時,宜採取訴願、行政訴訟等方式請求救濟,以確保權益。

It is not difficult to know whether such trademark can be registered at surface, however due to people’s different perception to things, each case may be different depending on its authorities’ subjective judgment. There is no standard set of criteria. If authorities reject your trademark application, appeals or administrative litigation would be another option to guarantee your right.

[1]商標識別性審查基準,中華民國101年4月20日經濟部經授智字第10120030550號令修正發布,101年7月1日生效。

[2]行政法院88年度判字第3869號判決。



[1] Trademark Recognition benchmark, granted by Chilean Ministry of Economy Order amendment number 10120030550 announced on 20th April 2012, in force on 1st July 2012.

[2] Administrative Court, No. 3869, 88th year judgment.

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Taiwan Trademark 101 Series, the Protection of Well-known Trademarks.

Written by: James Y. Chang

  Attorney-at-Law

1. Preamble

If a trademark didn’t file for registration in Taiwan, it still can be protected by the well-known trademark right from both national laws and international conventions.

 

2. Regulations

Taiwan is a member of WTO. According to the Article 2 of WTO TRIPS agreement, members shall comply with Articles 6[1] of the Paris Convention (1967) which rules that no application shall be filed for registration of a trademark that is identical or similar to another person’s well-known trademark or mark that it is likely to cause public confusion.

Even though Taiwan is not a membership of WIPO, she follows the well-known mark agreement[2]of WIPO to protect them from either the use of that mark is likely to impair or dilute in an unfair manner the distinctive character of the well-known mark or the use of that mark would take unfair advantage of the distinctive character of the well-known mark[3]. The Trademark Act[4] of Taiwan recognizes two types of well-known trademark dilution, namely likelihood of dilution of the distinctiveness of well-known trademarks and likelihood of dilution of the reputation of well-known trademarks, which protection is as well as the rules of WIPO.

 

3. Factors to Be Considered When Determining Well-known Trademarks

The determination of well-known trademarks should be made on a case-by-case basis and by taking into consideration. According to the Examination Guidelines for the Protection of Well-known Trademarks[5], the following factors shall be considered as a whole:

(1)   The strength of the distinctiveness of the trademark.

(2) The extent to which the relevant enterprises or consumers know or recognize the trademark.

(3)    The duration, scope, and geographical area of use of the trademark.

(4)   The duration, scope, and geographical area of promotion of the trademark.

(5) Whether the trademark has applied for registration or the trademark has been registered, and its term, scope, and geographic area that are registered or being registered.

(6)   Any record of successful enforcement of trademark rights, especially the fact that the trademark has been recognized as a well-known one by an administrative or judicial authority.

(7)    The value of the trademark.

(8)   Other factors that could be considered in determining whether a trademark is well-known.

The above factors for judging whether a trademark is well-known are only examples. They may not be all necessarily taken into consideration in one case; only those that are relevant enough to determine whether the trademark is well-known should be considered, depending on the circumstances of the case.



[1] Article 6bis: [Marks: Well–Known Marks]

(1) The countries of the Union undertake, ex officio if their legislation so permits, or at the request of an interested party, to refuse or to cancel the registration, and to prohibit the use, of a trademark which constitutes a reproduction, an imitation, or a translation, liable to create confusion, of a mark considered by the competent authority of the country of registration or use to be well known in that country as being already the mark of a person entitled to the benefits of this Convention and used for identical or similar goods. These provisions shall also apply when the essential part of the mark constitutes a reproduction of any such well–known mark or an imitation liable to create confusion therewith.

(2) A period of at least five years from the date of registration shall be allowed for requesting the cancellation of such a mark. The countries of the Union may provide for a period within which the prohibition of use must be requested.

(3) No time limit shall be fixed for requesting the cancellation or the prohibition of the use of marks registered or used in bad faith.

[2] Joint Recommendation Concerning Provisions on the Protection of Well-Known Marks at the Thirty-Fourth Series of Meetings of the Assemblies of the Member States of WIPO September 20 to 29, 1999

[3] Ibid. Article 4 (1)

(b) Irrespective of the goods and/or services for which a mark is used, is the subject of an application for registration, or is registered, that mark shall be deemed to be in conflict with a well-known mark where the mark, or an essential part thereof, constitutes a reproduction, an imitation, a translation, or a transliteration of the well-known mark, and where at least one of the following conditions is fulfilled:

(i) the use of that mark would indicate a connection between the goods and/or services for which the mark is used, is the subject of an application for registration, or is registered, and the owner of the well-known mark, and would be likely to damage his interests;

(ii) the use of that mark is likely to impair or dilute in an unfair manner the distinctive character of the well-known mark;

(iii) the use of that mark would take unfair advantage of the distinctive character of the well-known mark.

[4] Trademark Act Article 30: grounds for refusal of registration

(11) being identical with or similar to another person’s well-known trademark or mark, and hence there exists a likelihood of confusion on the relevant public or a likelihood of dilution of the distinctiveness or reputation of the said well-known trademark or mark, unless the proprietor of the said well-known trademark or mark consents to the application;

[5] Examination Guidelines for the Protection of Well-known Trademarks under Subparagraph 11 of Paragraph 1 of Article 30 of the Trademark Act. Enacted and promulgated on November 9, 2007 by the order of the MOEA. Amended and promulgated on April 20, 2012 by the order of the MOEA, enforced on July 1, 2012.

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Taiwan Trademark 101 Series, What Should I Do When My Trademark Has a Likelihood of Confusion Problem?

Written by: James Y. Chang

Attorney-at-Law

1. Preamble

The competent authority found that the application for the trademark registration had a likelihood of confusion existing between the two trademarks by physical examinations and the application should be rejected. Before rendering a disposition of refusal pursuant to the preceding paragraph, a written notice stating grounds for refusal shall be given to the applicant, who may make following observations on the intended refusal within the prescribed period[1].

 

2. Restriction of the Designated Goods or Services

According to the Article 23 and 38 of the Trademark Act, no amendments shall be made unless such amendment is a restriction of designated goods or services. The restriction of goods may be made by deleting some of the designated goods, by changing a broader range of general goods to specific particular goods, for instance, cosmetics to lipsticks, or by defining the specification to particular goods of interest the applications of the goods, for instance, vaporizers to vaporizers for industrial use[2].

 

3. Request to Divide Application

The proprietor of a registered trademark may request the Registrar Office to divide the registration into two or more registrations by distributing the designated goods or services included in the original registration among divisional registrations[3].In applying for division of a trademark application, the original applicant shall submit a copy of the division application, a trademark application and relevant documents for each divided application[4]. The division may result in the original trademark application being divided into several new independent applications. A new application number is then assigned to each divided trademark and the examination of each divided trademark is processed. After the division has been approved, the original trademark application is marked with "division" and is closed accordingly[5].

 

4. Consent from a prior right holder

According to the Subparagraph 10 of Paragraph 1 of Article 30 of the Act, a trademark shall not be registered when there exists a likelihood of confusion on relevant consumers, unless the consent of the proprietor of the registered trademark has been given and is not obviously improper. Under the current Act, a letter of consent from the prior rights holder can waive the citation of conflicting prior rights, except in cases where the trademarks and the goods or services in conflict are identical. The amendment adds a proviso to the effect that such consent shall not waive the citation if there is obvious impropriety[6]. For example, if there are two trademarks belonging to different proprietors which are designated on identical goods or services, the function of these trademarks on indicating correct sources of goods or services will be lost and rights of consumers will be affected. A proprietor of a registered trademark keeping consenting others for concurrent registration after the court suspended the right of disposition of the registered trademark is also obviously improper[7].

 



[1]審定核駁理由先行通知實施要點,中華民國94107日經授智字第09420030700號令修正。

[2] Examination Guidelines on “Likelihood of Confusion”. Enacted and promulgated on April 28, 2004 by the order of the MOEA, enforced on May 1, 2004. Amended and promulgated on April 20, 2012 by the order of the MOEA, enforced on July 1, 2012. Page 17.

[3] Article 37 of the Trademark Act.

[4] Namely, documentation specified in Articles 8 through 11 of the Trademarks Regulations.

[6] http://www.inta.org/INTABulletin/Pages/TAIWANAmendmentstotheTrademarkAct.aspx

[7] Examination Guidelines on “Likelihood of Confusion”. Page 19.

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Taiwan Trademark 101 Series,   Distinctiveness

Written by: James Y. Chang

Attorney-at-Law

1. Trademarks Distinctiveness

The main function of a trademark is to identify the source of goods or services. If a sign cannot identify and distinguish goods or services, it does not have the trademark function and the registration cannot be approved. Distinctiveness is an important requirement for registration of a trademark [1] . The details of distinctiveness are as follows:

 

2.   Fanciful Marks

Fanciful marks are devices which have been invented for the sole purpose of functioning as a trademark and have no other meaning than acting as a mark. Fanciful marks are considered to be the strongest type of mark [2] . Approved cases [3] :

    "GOOGLE" for search engine services

    " 震旦 " ("Aurora") for transmission services by telecommunications weighted networks

    " 普騰 " ("Proton") for television sets and stereo sets

      for cars and passenger cars.

 

3.   Arbitrary Mark

An arbitrary mark is a trademark that consists of a word which is used in a way that has nothing to do with its meaning. The use of the word will have nothing to do with its actual meaning. Arbitrary marks are inherently distinctive and the owner need not show secondary meaning to be entitled to protection for the mark because arbitrary marks bare no connection to the underlying goods and services [4] . Approved cases [5] :

.    " 蘋果 APPLE," " 黑莓 BlackBerry" for computers and data processors.

    " 風信子 " ("Hyacinth") for cups, bowls and dishes.

    " 向日葵 " ("Sunflowers") for solar collectors.

    " 春天 " ("Spring") for restaurant and hotel services

      for clothing.

 

4.   Suggestive Trademark

A suggestive trademark is so named because it suggests a quality or characteristic of goods and services; such a trademark might also be called allusive. However, a suggestive trademark requires a subtle leap in thought, imagination or perception for the consumer to reach a conclusion as to the exact nature of the goods [6] . Approved cases [7] :

    " 快譯通 " ("Quick Translation Understandable") for electronic dictionaries.

    " 一匙靈 " ("One Spoon Effective") for laundry detergents in powder form.

    " 克潮靈 " ("Resisting Humidity Effective") for dehumidifying agents.

    " 靠得住 " ("Reliable") for sanitary napkins.

    " 足爽 " ("Foot Refreshing") for medicated ointment for H.K. feet.

      for chairs, rocking chairs, desks and chairs.

 

5. Acquired Distinctiveness

A trademark with no distinctive character is prima facie unregistrable. However, these marks may still allowed to be registered if the trademark owner can demonstrate, typically by reference to evidence of use, that consumers in the marketplace exclusively associate the mark, as used on the identified goods or in connection with the identified services, with a particular commercial origin or source (i.e. the trademark owner). "Use" may include authorized use by a licensee or other party. If the trade marks office is satisfied that the evidence demonstrates that a mark has "acquired" distinctive character as a matter of fact, then the mark may be accepted for registration on the basis of acquired distinctiveness [8] . Approved cases [9] :

    "787", a simple number, is not distinctive.   However, after the applicant has long used it as a trademark in connection with airplanes and their parts and fittings, aircraft and their parts and fittings, and helicopters and their parts and fittings, such sign has caused a sufficient number of relevant consumers to recognize it as a sign identifying the source of goods and has acquired distinctiveness through use.

    "4810," the height of Mont Blanc, the highest mountain in Europe, is not distinctive. However, after the applicant has long used it as a trademark in connection with fountain pens, ball point pens, pencils, felt pens, etc., and used it extensively in the advertising media, such sign has acquired distinctiveness through use.

    "V50" for cars, trucks and all-purpose RV cars gives an impression that it is the model number of the designated goods and is not inherently distinctive. However, after the applicant has long used it, relevant consumers are able to recognize it as a sign identifying the source of certain goods, so it has acquired distinctiveness.

    "Life should be wasted on beautiful things," which is irrelevant to drinks made from tea leaves or tea, coffee, drinks made from coffee, cocoa and drinks made from cocoa, ice cream, etc., was not distinctive. However, after the applicant has long used it as a trademark in connection with aforesaid goods and used it extensively in the advertising media, such sign has acquired distinctiveness.

      is an ornamental pattern.   The use of the pattern for department stores, supermarkets, etc., is not inherently distinctive. However, after the applicant has long used it as a trademark in connection with handbags, packaging bags, etc., such sign has acquired distinctiveness.

 



[1] Examination Guidelines on Distinctiveness of Trademarks, Enacted and promulgated on December 31, 2008 by the order of the MOEA, enforced on January 1, 2009, Amended and promulgated on April 20, 2012 by the order of the MOEA, enforced on July 1, 2012. P4-5.

[3] Ibid., Examination Guidelines on Distinctiveness of Trademarks, P6.

[4] http://definitions.uslegal.com/a/arbitrary-marks/

[5] Ibid., Examination Guidelines on Distinctiveness of Trademarks, P7.

[6] http://www.veritrademark.com/articles/five-categories-trademarks

[7] Ibid., Examination Guidelines on Distinctiveness of Trademarks, P7-8.

[8] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trademark_distinctiveness

[9] Ibid., Examination Guidelines on Distinctiveness of Trademarks, P12-13.

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Taiwan Trademark 101 Series, What is a Trademark?

 

Written by: James Y. Chang

Attorney-at-Law

1. What Does a Trademark Do

A trademark generally protects brand names and logos used for goods and services. It is generally a word, phrase, symbol, device, or even color, shape or packaging of goods, motion, hologram, sound, or a combination. The trademark is mainly used by a person in the course of business or trade to identify and distinguish the source of goods or services of one undertaking from those of another[1].

 

2. Trademark Distinctiveness

The main function of a trademark is to identify the source of goods or services. If a sign cannot identify and distinguish goods or services, it does not have the trademark function and the application of the registration can’t be approved. Distinctiveness is a must for the trademark registration[2].

 

3. Legislation Governing Trademarks

In Taiwan, the law that govern registration of trademarks is the Trademark Act. There are also administrative rules formulated by Taiwan Intellectual Property Office (TIPO), such as the Enforcement Rules of the Trademark Act, the Standards of Trademark Fees, Implementation Regulations for Customs to Detain Articles Infringing the Rights in the Trademark, that play important roles for the regulations of the Trademark in Taiwan.

 

4. Is It Mandatory to Register a Trademark?

It is not mandatory to register a trademark in Taiwan. You can use your trademark in the course of trade without any registration. However, your trademark will not be protected by the laws because it is not registered. If it were not registered, there will be a risk that other peoples are using your trademarks and you will be hard to assert legal rights against the infringers. However, if you just want to use an unregistered trademark, you are advised to go to TIPO database and find out if it is already registered or is still undergoing application process. This will help you to prevent from unknowingly infringing the trademarks rights of registered proprietors[3].

 

5. Advantages to Registering a Trademark

The registered trademark proprietor is entitled to have the statutory exclusivity rights during the valid period of time in Taiwan area. As the proprietor of a registered trademark, you will:

  1. have the exclusive right to use your registered trademark for the goods or services specified in the registration;

  2. have the right to authorize use by other people of your registered trademark for the goods or services specified in the registration;

  3. have the right to sell the registered trademark or use it as a property to establish a pledge;

  4. be able to stop people from using your trademark for the goods or services which might be covered by your trademark registration and causing confusion;

  5. be able to request Customs to prevent the importation or exportation of goods that infringe your registered trademark; and

  6. may take a legal action against infringers that use your registered trademark as their own on identical or similar goods or services without your consent.

The registered trademark enables you to protect your market share or profits better by preventing people from counterfeiting it[4].



[2] Examination Guidelines on Distinctiveness of Trademarks, Enacted and promulgated on December 31, 2008 by the order of the MOEA, enforced on January 1, 2009. Amended and promulgated on April 20, 2012 by the order of the MOEA, enforced on July 1, 2012, p 4

[3] Ibid., UNDERSTANDING TRADEMARKS, p 3

[4] Ibid., p3-4.

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Taiwanese Trademark Procedure: How to Cease a Trademark

Produced by Zoomlaw Attorneys-at-Law

17th November 2014

 

  1. 1.      Opposition:

The relevant legislation for opposition of trademark is Section IV of the Trademark Act 2011.

l   Any person can file an opposition to registration of a trademark with the Registrar Office within three month from the day following the date of publication of registration (Article 48)

l   The facts and grounds must be stated and any attachments shall be enclosed with the filed opposition.

l   Once the opposition is filed and sent to the Registrar Office, the proprietor of the opposed trademark will be served a copy and may submit a statement of defense. The Registrar Office shall then serve a copy of the statement to the opponent who may submit an opinion on said statement. However, if the statement or opinion is likely to delay the proceedings, or where the facts and evidence are sufficiently clear, the Registrar Office may conduct opposition proceedings directly.

l   The opposition shall be examined by an examiner who didn’t participate in the examination of the application for registration of the opposed trademark (Article 51)

l   If the opposition is sustained, the registration of the trademark shall be cancelled (Article 54)

 

(Cancellation Proceedings)

  1. 2.      Invalidation:

The relevant legislation for invalidation of trademark is Section V of the Trademark Act 2011.

l   File invalidation with the Registrar Office or a trademark examiner submits a proposal to the Registrar Office for invalidation (Article 57)

l   If the registration has been published for not less than five years, no invalidation shall be filed. However, this time limit shall not apply to invalidation against a trademark that falls under Subparagraph 9 (similar geographical indication for wines or spirit) or 11 (similar to another well-known trademark) Article 30 (Article 58)

l   The invalidation proposal will be examined by three or more examiners assigned by the head of the Registrar Office (Article 59)

l   If the invalidation is passed, the registered trademark shall be cancelled. However, if the circumstance on which a trademark is invalid no longer exists, a proposition to overrule the invalidation may be considered – basically stating the an invalidated trademark can, in specific situation, be rendered valid again (Article 60)

 

  1. 3.      Revocation:

The relevant legislation for revocation of trademark is Section VI of the Trademark Act 2011.

l   Can be filed when the trademark owner violated some regulations (Article 63):

n   alteration of, or addition to, the trademark

n   lack of use of the mark

n   failure to attach appropriate distinctive symbols under Article 43

n   a mark's becoming descriptive of the name or shape of the designated goods or services

n   a mark that is likely to lead the public into misidentification or misconception in respect of the characteristics, quality, or place of origin of the merchandise

l   A copy of the revocation will be served to the proprietor of a registered trademark by the Registrar Office who may submit a defense statement. The Registrar Office shall then serve a copy of the statement to the opponent who may submit an opinion on said statement. A request for revocation may be dismissed directly if it is lacking evidence and concrete facts or based on obviously groundless claims.

 

 

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