各國之商標公序良俗簡介 眾律國際法律事務所實習律師陳映青

Introduction of trademark’s public order and morality in different countries

By Intern Lawyer Ying-Qing Chen (Zoomlaw Attorneys-At-Law)

壹、美國[1]

1. United States of America[1]

一、美國1946年商標法§2(a)[2]

商標申請內容包含不道德、欺罔或可恥的事項,或由該等事項構成者,得不予註冊商標。

1. U.S. Trademark Act of 1946§2(a) (15U.S.C.§1052)

No trademark by which the goods of the applicant may be distinguished from the goods of others shall be refused registration on the principal register on account of its nature unless consists of or comprises immoral, deceptive, or scandalous matters.

二、商標審查程序手冊(TMEP)

「可恥的」在一般詞彙意義中,表示一種對行為規範具有衝擊性,對於良知、道德具有侵害性,或是具有可譴責性的詞語;法律意義上,則包含道德層面上粗俗之意義。在商標申請案之審查上,應綜合當時社會現狀下普遍大眾對於一般和法律意義面向上「可恥」意義之認知。實務常見案件類型如涉及宗教、種族、性、藥品、暴力、低俗圖文等。

2. Trademark Examination Procedure Manual (TEMPT)

The word “shame” in its general meaning means a kind of code of conduct with aggressive behavior in terms of its consciousness and morality which carries invasive nature or condemnatory words. In the eyes of the law, it includes a sense of morality. In its trademark application examination, examiner should consider what the general public thinks what “shame” is. Cases we see generally as references involves religion, race, sex, drugs, violence, and vulgar graphics and so on.

貳、澳洲[3]

2. Australia

一、澳洲1995年商標法§42[4]

商標申請內容含有可恥事項,或尤其所構成者,不得註冊。

        1. Australia Trade Marks Act 1995-Sect 42

                An application for the registration of a trade mark must be rejected if:

                (a) the trademark contains or consist of scandalous matter; or

                (b) its use would be contrary to law.

二、商標實務及程序手冊

「可恥的」指不名譽,不道德,具有汙衊、誹謗性質,或具可譴責性之詞語。判斷上應遵循時下之社會價值,從一般相關公眾之觀點著眼,考量商標之使用情況,並避免主觀意見之滲入。

    2. Trademark Examination Procedure Manual

The word “Shame” means dishonorable, immoral which carries the nature of libelous and defamatory nature or may have condemnation of words. When making its discretion, we should consider its social value at public and how such trademark is being used to prevent any subjective point of view when examining its patent application.

參、歐盟[5]

3. European

一、歐洲共同體商標條例§7I.(f)[6]

商標違反公共政策或公認道德原則者,不應被註冊。

1. Council Regulation (EC) No 207|2009 §7I.(f)[6]:

Trademarks which are contrary to public policy or to accepted principles of morality shall not be registered.

二、商標實務手冊

「公共政策」為民主法制所需之規範,「公認道德原則」為維繫社會功能所需之原則。

2. Trademark Examination Procedure Manual

“Public policy” is the considered necessary for its nature justice; “public moral principles” is to maintain its public social order.

肆、英國[7]

4. England

一、英國1994年商標法§3(3)(a)[8]

商標違反公共政策或公認道德原則者,不得註冊。

1. UK Trade Marks Act 1994§3(3)(a)

A trademark shall not be registered if it is contrary to public policy or to accepted principles of morality, or of such a nature as to deceive the public (for instance as to the nature, quality or geographical origin of the goods or services).

二、商標實務手冊

「公共政策」旨在防止公共秩序、防範犯罪。「公認道德原則」則在維護宗教、社會或家庭價值。若商標之用語依其商品或服務之性質,客觀上在公眾間具有冒犯之顯著性者,即屬違反公認道德。

2. Trademark Examination Procedure Manual

The purpose of “Public policy” is to prevent social disorder and crime. “Public moral principles” is to preserve its value of religion、social and family values. If such trademark word, from an objective point of view, carries offensive characteristics which relates to its product and service, examiner would treat such application as contrary to public moral values.

伍、日本[9]

5. Japan

一、日本商標法§4I⑦[10]

商標有妨害公共秩序或善良風俗之虞者,不得註冊。

1. Japan Trade Mark Law §4 I ⑦:

No trademark shall be registered if the trademark is likely to cause damage to public policy;

二、商標審查基準

有「妨害公共秩序或善良風俗之虞」之商標,指(1).商標本身含有低俗、歧視或負面印象之圖文,或(2).商標與其商品、服務結合後將有背於社會公益道德者。實務操作上,除符合上述兩事由之情形外,法定禁止使用、違反國際信義、混淆國家資格、獨占歷史著名人物名稱或欠缺社會妥當性之項目,亦同屬有害公序良俗之虞者。

2. Trademark Examination Procedure Manual

       If there is trademark that infringed its public order and morality, meaning (1) the trademark itself carries inferiority、discrimination or negative influence photography, or (2) trademark or other products, services together that is contrary to public moral values. In practice, except for the two conditions mentioned above, the law infringed its usage、violation of international values、confuses national qualification、possess its historical name exclusively or lack of social validity would be treated as contrary to public order and morality.

陸、我國

6. Taiwan

一、中華民國商標法§30⑦:

妨害公共秩序或善良風俗者,不得註冊商標。

1. Taiwan Trademark Act 2011 §30⑦:

A trademark shall not be registered that is being contrary to public policy or to accepted principles of morality.

二、商標法逐條釋義

「公共秩序」指國家社會一般利益。「善良風俗」指社會一般道德觀念。判斷上,凡申請項目之形式或實質意義上,在當時社會價值觀念下依其使用情況判斷,具有下列事由者即屬之。

  2. Trademark Examination Procedure Manual

“Public order” means the welfare or well-being of the general public. “Moral standards” means morality accepted by public. By judgement, when making its application, factors below would be taken into consideration.  

 1. 損害國家、民族或社會之尊嚴者。

Damages to its country’s public image、ethnic group or social values.

 2. 鼓勵或煽惑犯罪、違法或擾亂社會秩序者。

        Encourage or to induce crimes、infringed the law or to disturb its social order.

 3. 非法組織、叛亂團體或盜匪、幫派等集團或個人之標記者。

Illegal organization、extreme groups or robbery、gangsters or other related groups.

4. 易使人產生恐怖、醜惡感而影響社會心理健康者。

Causes fears of others、ugly feelings that carries bad influences on psychosocial health.

5. 對於某一國家、種族、地區、宗教、團體、職業或個人表示侮辱或不尊重者。

Shows disrespect or insult to a certain country、race、region、religion、group、occupation or individual.

6. 違悖倫理,提倡迷信或敗壞風化者。

Unethical, promote superstition or culture of prostitution.

柒、代結論

7. Conclusion

在商標審查要求上,各國多有將「公序良俗」列入審查事由。因各國風土民情不盡相同,故其具體適用上可能產生不同之結果。然而在審查判斷上,其大體均以「客觀角度」和「當時社會價值」基準。此外,各國審查之參考項目亦得為我國之商標審查時之參考依據。

In terms of its trademark examination, many countries would take the “Public order and morality’ into consideration. Due to its cultural differences, how examiners view your application may be different according to its culture and values. However examiners would use its “objective point of view” and its “social value at that time” as fundamental examination criteria when examining its application. This is a good example of how other countries take the “Public order and morality” into consideration and we may also apply their principles to our country.

參考資料及連結:

1. 陳宏杰,商標違反公序良俗之研究—我國相關法令與歐、英、奧、美實務探討,智慧財產權月刊第158期,民國101  年2月。

2. 鍾桂華,商標違反公序良俗之研究—日本實務及案例探討,智慧財產權月刊第158期,民國101年2月。

3. 中華民國商標法逐條釋義。

References:

1. Hong-Jie Chen (2012, February). Trademark and its violation of public order and morality studies – Taiwan’s related statues with European、England、Australia and America in practice , Intellectual Property Monthly Article 158.

2. Gui-Hua Zhong (2012, February). Trademark and its violation of public order and morality studies-Japan Case studies and discussion, Intellectual Property Monthly Article 158.

3. Taiwan Trademark Act Statute Interpretation.


[1]陳宏杰,商標違反公序良俗之研究—我國相關法令與歐、英、奧、美實務探討,智慧財產權月刊第158期,民國101年2月,第24~36頁。

[2]Trademark Act of 1946§2(a) (15U.S.C.§1052).-Trademarks registrable on the principal register; concurrent registration

「No trademark by which the goods of the applicant may be distinguished from the goods of others shall be refused registration on the principal register on account of its nature unless it--

(a) Consists of or comprises immoral, deceptive, or scandalous matter; or matter which may disparage or falsely suggest a connection with persons, living or dead, institutions, beliefs, or national symbols, or bring them into contempt, or disrepute; or a geographical indication which, when used on or in connection wines or spirits, identifies a place by the applicant on or after one year after the date on which the WTO Agreement (as defined in section 3501(9) of the title 19) enters into force with respect to the United States.」

[3]同註1,第19~21。

[4]AU Trade Marks Act 1995 §42

「An application for the registration of a trade mark must be rejected if:

(a)      the trade mark contains or consists of scandalous matter.」

[5]同註1,第13~14頁。

[6]COUNCIL REGULATION (EC) No 207/2009 of 26 February 2009 on the Community trade mark

Article 7 Absolute grounds for refusal

1.The following shall not be registered:

(f)trade marks which are contrary to the public policy or to accepted principles of morality;

[7]同註1,第13~16頁。

[8]UK Trade Marks Act 1994§3(3)(a)

「A trade mark shall not be registered if it is-

(a)      Contrary to public policy or to accepted principles of morality explicit/taboo signs.」

[9]鍾桂華,商標違反公序良俗之研究—日本實務及案例探討,智慧財產權月刊第158期,民國101年2月,第38~39頁。

[10]日本商标法§4 I ⑦:

「关于下列商标,虽有前条规定,不能进行商标注册:

(7)有可能危害公共秩序或良好风俗的商标;」



[1] Hong-Jie Chen (2012, February). Trademark and its violation of public order and morality studies – Taiwan’s related statues with European、England、Australia and America in practice , Intellectual Property Monthly Article 158, page 24-36. 

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